top of page

Cervical Diseases (HPV Virus)

​5 out of every 10 women encounter human papillomavirus (HPV), which causes cervical cancer, during their lifetime. In the early stages of cervical cancer, there are usually no signs or symptoms. Therefore, the earliest diagnosis is very important in the treatment of cervical cancer.

What causes cervical cancer?
Cervical cancer occurs as a result of sexual transmission of the HPV virus. Not every person exposed to the virus is expected to have 100% cervical cancer. In some cases, the body can destroy the HPV virus on its own and the symptoms may regress. The risk of developing cervical cancer is higher in recurrent cases (frequent exposure to the HPV virus) and in high-risk groups. 70-75% of men and women have Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). This virus can go to the next level and cause cervical cancer. On the other hand, the immune system can defeat the virus and ensure that it disappears from the body. HPV virus can cause lesions in the cervix in the early stages. 1% of these lesions carry a risk of cervical cancer in the future.

Who is in the cervical cancer risk group?
The highest risk group for cervical cancer is those who carry the HPV virus. In addition, those who have sexual intercourse at an early age and those who have many sexual partners with a suspected risk are at risk of developing cervical cancer. On the other hand, smoking and alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet or immune system diseases, which reduce the protection of the immune system, also increase the risk of cervical cancer. The risk is also high in those who use birth control pills and have low folic acid. It can also be observed in people who receive radiotherapy, chemotherapy and cortisone treatment, as their immune system is damaged.

How common is cervical cancer?
Cervical cancer is seen at a rate of 4.1 per hundred thousand in the population. It is parallel to the development level of these countries. The factors that are effective here are as follows:


Beginning sexuality at an early age

plural partnership

HPV virus, which is seen in 70% of the society, does not turn into cancer in every individual, but it becomes a carrier. Failure to detect the virus in the early period causes cervical cancer at a rate of only 1%. Early diagnosis and diagnosis facilitates treatment.

cervical diseases, cervical cancer, hpv, hpv virus

How is cervical cancer transmitted?
Cervical cancer is sexually transmitted. The sexually transmitted Human Papiloma Virus (HPV) causes cervical cancer. As we said; It does not mean that it will cause cancer in every person who carries it. It may stretch spontaneously. There are more than a hundred types of HPV virus today. Not every virus in this group is risky for cancer. Low-risk HPV virus can cause genital warts. Viruses that carry cancer risk are not in the form of genital warts; they are detected at the end of pathological examination.

What are the symptoms of cervical cancer?
While there are no early symptoms of cervical cancer, there are late symptoms. Most of the time, it does not cause any symptoms of complaint in the early period. In the later stages, when cervical cancer occurs, it causes more symptoms. Therefore, pap-smear tests and routine doctor check-ups every 6 months are extremely important.

Symptoms of late cervical cancer are as follows;


Bleeding after intercourse

Pain after intercourse

Bleeding in the mid-term or during menopause

White and pink vaginal discharge

How does cervical cancer spread?
Cervical cancer spreads in three ways. We can list these as through neighborhood, blood and lymph. The most common of these is spread through neighbourhood. This is a state of spread to nearby organs. If cervical cancer is left untreated, it can spread to nearby organs in the early stages. For example, it can spread to the bladder, bladder, anus, rectum, colon, and intestines. Cervical cancer may spread to lymph nodes, bones, lungs and breasts in the future. Early and late spread are different in terms of treatment. Early diagnosis makes treatment easier. On the other hand, uterine cancer that spreads to other organs becomes difficult to treat and may cause death in the future.

How is cervical cancer diagnosed?
Cervical cancer can be diagnosed during annual gynecological examinations and with the help of pap-smear test. When any risk is detected as a result of these tests, a further test, colposcopic examination, is performed. With the help of colchoscopy, the cervix is examined in detail, magnifying it 40 times. If a suspicious lesion is seen, a lesion sample is taken and examined pathologically. It is important for every woman to have regular medical check-ups and to have a pap-smear test every 6 months, both for her own health and for public health. When there is any doubt as a result of the Pap-smear test, advanced techniques are used.

How is cervical cancer treated?
Cervical cancer varies depending on the person's general health condition, stage of the disease, spread, age and desire to have children. These treatments are of two types, depending on the precursor lesions and the way the cancer develops; Lesions at risk of cancer in the cervix are treated with methods such as burning, freezing and laser. If cancer is diagnosed, the following advanced surgical methods are applied;


Removal of the cervix by cutting it into lip shape

Application of cold conization

Cutting out the cervix by amputation

Cutting out the cervix using the telechlorophy method

Removal of lymph using radical ostomy method

How can we protect ourselves from cervical cancer?
To protect against cervical cancer, it is necessary to avoid sexuality and multiple partnerships at an early age. Additionally, one should not choose partners that may involve high risk. Methods of protection against cervical cancer are routine examination and pap-smear test and vaccination. The vaccine is not curative but protective. It reduces the risk of cancer by 30-80% depending on HPV types.

What does cervical cancer vaccine mean?
The vaccine developed against the HPV virus is the cervical cancer vaccine. Since the cause of cancer is the HPV virus, when we prevent the HPV virus, we also prevent cancer. There are two types of HPV virus vaccine, quadruple and double. These are done to protect against cervical cancer, not for treatment purposes. A therapeutic vaccine has not yet been developed, but studies are continuing. The approved HPV vaccine is required to be administered to all women between the ages of 10-26. It is ideal to have it done before sexual intercourse begins. In this way, it helps strengthen the immune system. However, all women with an active sexual life can be vaccinated, even at older ages. Since men only carry HPV and it does not turn into cancer, it is important for women to get vaccinated for protection.

What does the cervical cancer vaccine do?
Cervical cancer vaccine is a vaccine given to protect against cervical cancer. Cervical cancer is caused by the sexually transmitted HPV virus. A vaccine has also been developed against this virus. It is only a preventive vaccine and has no therapeutic properties. It is recommended that all girls aged 10-26 be vaccinated against HPV. The vaccine used today protects against HPV types 2 and 4 in the form of double and quadruple vaccines. A more protective vaccine against type 9 will also be available in a few years.

How is the cervical cancer vaccine administered?

Cervical cancer vaccine is administered into the arm into the muscle in three doses. It is applied in the 0th, 2nd and 6th months following the first month. Sometimes it can be done at 0, 1 and 6 months. It is important to administer vaccination against HPV from the age of 10 years. The vaccine has almost no side effects. There may be slight redness and pain in the arm. Very rarely, an allergic reaction may occur. The protection of the vaccine against the virus called HPV is extremely high. The protection rate against the most common types is around 95%.

I have a scar on my cervix, can I have cervical cancer?
A scar on the cervix does not increase the risk of cervical cancer. Here it is necessary to be more careful and follow the situation. It means that the structure of the cervix is damaged. It is necessary to be more careful, especially in ulcer-shaped wounds. If the HPV virus is also present here, cancer can progress more easily. Since the wound may cause the HPV virus to penetrate further into the area, the risk of cancer in this area increases. Wound detection is done by the doctor. Sometimes, the cervix protruding outward may also cause a wound appearance. Here, pap-smear test and examination are important. Low-risk HPV virus can cause genital warts. Viruses that carry cancer risk are not in the form of genital warts; they are detected at the end of pathological examination.

(Please consult your doctor for detailed information.)

bottom of page